AG’s Report: Cross-tabulation

CrossTab “Cross-tabulation is a statistical process that summarizes categorical data to create a contingency table. They are heavily used in survey research, business intelligence, engineering and scientific research.”

In our earlier posts on “Who is audited?” and “Government Procurement,” we have looked at the facilities provided in the AG’s Report Information Graph for making the audit information more accessible, integrated and usable.  For management purposes, we need to be able to have an overview of this intricate network of information. One way of doing this is to cross-tabulate the audit issues with the other facets available. This cross-tabulation adds a new dimension to how we view the integrated audit information to help us gain insights on the issues encountered by the government machinery.

The main “Audit Issues” we have identified are as follows:
  1. Administration
  2. Asset management
  3. Contract Implementation
  4. Facilities management
  5. Financial controls
  6. Human resources
  7. Operation management
  8. Performance
  9. Procurement
  10. Technical services.

You can view the full list with the sub-issues here.

The Auditor General’s office does not provide such a list; we derive it by examining the annual AG’s reports.  The list is work in progress.  We will fine-tune it as more annual AG’s reports are processed.

Procurement Issues

Figure 1 – Procurement Issues

financial conntrols
Figure 2 – Financial controls issues

Figure 1 and 2 above shows the Procurement and Financial controls sub-issues and the number of related audits.

Cross-Tab options(1)
Figure 3 – Cross Tabulation Options

Figure 3 above shows the options for cross-tabulations.  These options are the “group of groups” available in the information graph. The default is “Audit areas” which should provide some meaningful cross tabulation. The audit areas are the business sectors or function related to the individual audits.

cross-tab audit areas
Figure 3 – Procurement issues cross tabulated against the audit areas

Figure 3 is the cross-tabulation output of the procurement issues across the audit areas. The column headers are the Procurement Issues, and the row headers are the audit areas.  The numbers within the cells indicate the number of related audits in the intersection of the audit areas and procurement issues.  When the user clicks on any of the displayed numbers, the related audits at the intersection of the audit area and audit issue will be displayed as shown in Figure 4.

It must be noted that the audits undertaken by the National Audit Department are not based on a sampling methodology but their priorities and schedules. As such, the results you see here should not be generalized. They are just a snap-shot summary of the audit information included in Information Graph. On the other hand, administrators and management can use this information to support their planning activities.


Intersection - Project Management and specifications

Figure 4 shows the list of audits at the intersection of the Specification column and the Project Management row.  Instead of navigating the information graph with many clicks, to find these related audits,  this list is produced almost instantly.  The user can read the audit report, intisari laporan and the synopsis by clicking on the links. For a quick preview of the audit information, click the “Fast flip” hyperlink.

Image Gallery

These are various screens captured from the system.


The cross-tabulation facility is a new dimension to help make sense of the Auditor-General’s report. This facility is made possible as we have organized the audit information into an information graph together with the structural information about the government machinery, legislature, policies, initiatives, and projects. Users can use this facility to explore the various facets available in the information graph.  At the moment, this facility is implemented for the Audit issues only.  We will explore opportunities to apply this facility and other graph computing features elsewhere.


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